Carl Kendall, PhD


Visiting Professor, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará (Brazil)
Suite 2350
Carl Kendall, PhD, Professor Visiting Professor, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará (Brazil)

Education & Affiliations

NIMH Post-Doctoral Fellow, Medical Anthropology and Public Health, Michigan State University
PhD, Social Anthropology, University of Rochester
MA, Social Anthropology, University of Rochester
BA, Anthropology and Sociology, Swarthmore College


Dr. Kendall, a medical anthropologist, is a former acting chair of the Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences and in the Department of International Health. He was an Associate Professor at Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health where he founded the Center for International Community-Based Health Research. Dr. Kendall is a Fulbright Senior Fellow, CNPq Senior Researcher, and served on three Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences panels. He served on the governing council of the American Public Health Association. Dr. Kendall has extensive international project and research experience, having worked in more than forty countries on Child Survival, AIDS, and vector-borne diseases, primarily focusing on monitoring and evaluation. In 2013-2018, he was awarded a Science without Frontiers award from the Brazilian government to train Brazilian students at Tulane and to encourage collaboration among Brazilian and Tulane students and researchers. This collaboration continues through the CNPq Visiting Professorship that Dr. Kendall holds in the Department of Community Health, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará. Currently, Dr. Kendall is working with collaborators on a range of projects in Brazil centered around emerging and neglected diseases in vulnerable populations such as Zika, COVID-19, and Leprosy, as well as intervention development incorporating anthropology to encourage adolescent MSM to use PEP and PrEP in Fortaleza and to develop strategies to address trafficking and abuse among underage female sex workers in Recife.

Research Areas

In general: Health disparities and disease, social and economic causes of ill health

Recent research topics the team here in Brazil are engaged in:

Evaluating the public health response to COVID-19 in the northeast of Brazil

Preceptions of risk from COVID-19 among health professionals in four cities in Brazil

Learning from a cohort of women followed through the ZIKV epidemic in Fortaleza

Adolescent MSM and HIV prophylaxis - a multicity study

Social network analysis and Leprosy transmission in Sobral

Estimating the population of underage female sex workers in Recife


Honors & Awards


View Dr. Kendall's publications on his NCBI profile page.

Recent 2020 work:

Storer, H. L., Madkour, A. S., & Kendall, C. (2020). “You Soak It up Like a Sponge”: Urban African American Teens’ Perceptions of the Determinants of Dating Abuse Perpetration and Victimization. City & Community, 19. doi:

Rocha, G. M., Guimarães, M. D. C., de Brito, A. M., Dourado, I., Veras, M. A., Magno, L., . . . The Brazilian, H. I. V. M. S. M. G. (2020). High Rates of Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse and Their Correlates Among Young and Older MSM in Brazil. AIDS Behav, 24(3), 938-950. doi:10.1007/s10461-019-02459-y

Pinheiro, P., Kendall, B. C., Kerr, L., Pickett, K. M., Luna, I. T., Costa, M., & Luz, L. (2020). The south american context of diagnostic disclosure of adolescents infected by HIV/AIDS: a systematic literature review. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992), 66(8), 1139-1145. doi:10.1590/1806-9282.66.8.1139

Olivier, R., Gomes, M., F.C., Kendall, C., Kerr, L., André, P., & Pierre-Yves, B. (2020). Model-based Respondent-driven sampling analysis for HIV prevalence in brazilian MSM. Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group), 10(1). 

Magno, L., Leal, A. F., Knauth, D., Dourado, I., Guimarães, M. G. D. C., Santana, E. S. P., . . . Kendall, C. K. (2020). Acceptability of HIV self-testing is low among MSM who have not tested: a study with respondent-driven sampling in Brazil. Research Square (preprint). doi:

Kerr, L., Kendall, C., Silva, A. A. M., Aquino, E. M. L., Pescarini, J., Almeida, R. L. F., . . . Ximenes, R. A. A. (2020). COVID-19 no Nordeste brasileiro: sucessos e limitações nas respostas dos governos dos estados (also in English: COVID-19 in Northeast Brazil: achievements and limitations in the responses of the state governments). Cien Saude Colet [periódico na internet] (2020/Ago). Retrieved from

Gama-Araujo, I. S., Bezerra Filho, J. G., Kerr, L., Kendall, C., Macena, R. H. M., Mota, R. S., . . . Pires Neto, R. D. J. (2020). Physical violence inside female prisons in Brazil: prevalence and related factors. Cien Saude Colet, 25(2), 623-632. doi:10.1590/1413-81232020252.10842018

da Silva Santana, R., Kerr, L., Mota, R. S., Kendall, C., Rutherford, G., & McFarland, W. (2020). Lifetime Syphilis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Prisoners in Brazil. Sex Transm Dis, 47(2), 105-110. doi:10.1097/olq.0000000000001113

da Silva Santana, R., Kerr, L., Mota, R. M. S., Kendall, C., da Justa Neto, R., Macena, H. M., . . . McFarland, W. (2020). Syphilis Testing Among Female Prisoners in Brazil: Results of a National Cross-sectional Survey. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 

da Silva, A. Z., Mota, R. M. S., Macena, R. H. M., da Justa Pires Neto, R., Ferreira, M. J. M., de Araujo, P. F., . . . Kerr, L. (2020). Prevalence of hypertension and associated factors in female prison correctional officers in a national sample in Brazil. J Occup Health, 62(1), e12163. doi:10.1002/1348-9585.12163  


GCHB 7160 Using Respondent driven sampling to sample and estimate the population sizes of hard-to-reach populations

Dissertation Info

<b>Topics:</b> Social and cultural determinants of ill health, Brazil and Latin America, Science and society, Graduate education in public health<br>

<b>Methods:</b> Anthropology, qualitative and mixed methods, formal methods, social network analysis, Respondent-driven sampling